Little is known about the development of venous diseases. Experts suspect a genetic defect that is inherited from generation to generation. One also sees the trigger in the postural and movement processes changed by the evolution of mankind. This means that the upright gait of the human being plays an important role here.
Whereas in the past, when we were still walking on all fours, we systematically kept our blood circulation in motion, venous problems could hardly develop. Searching for food, hunting, even life in general, kept our ancestors constantly on their toes. The upright posture today when sitting, walking and standing demands special performance from the circulatory system. The five to seven litres of blood in an adult person & more precisely, a thirteenth of the body weight corresponds to our blood volume & are no longer predominantly in motion, as with our ancestors.
On the contrary, we spend most of our time in immobility for professional and social reasons, which in turn makes it easier for blood to sink into some damaged parts of the body. We sit, we stand more than we should be fond of. And then there are the hormonal changes such as pregnant mothers. Other factors such as weakness of the connective tissue or overweight also play a role, as do the vascular and other physiological changes in the body that occur with increasing age.
All in all, a large number of possible triggers of venous diseases have been discovered, but we do not know where to start in order to prevent the outbreak of the disease or to eliminate it. So we have to live with it and alleviate it by behaviours, limit it with therapeutic possibilities and if necessary correct it surgically by expert measures & according to the degree of severity. But even after these surgical measures, those affected must adhere to a few rules.
15% of the blood volume is under relatively high pressure in the arterial system, while 85% of the blood is available under relatively low pressure in the venous system. When the organism is under strain, such as during physical work, blood from the venous system, which is needed to increase performance, can also be supplied to the circulation.
Venous blood reflux takes place in two separate systems:
In the deep venous system, blood is mainly collected from the muscles and bones.
The superficial venous system primarily collects blood from the skin vessels and subcutaneous tissue.
The venous valves provide the pressure distribution and the flow direction of the blood.
Most frequent causes
There are basic (primary) and additional (secondary) factors for the development of venous diseases:
Primary risk factors, e.g:
"weakness of the connective tissue
"weak vessel walls
Secondary risk factors, e.g:
"low vascular musculature (calf/muscle pump)
Detection of venous insufficiency. The affected persons have a wide range of their own vein weakness to recognize. Pulling in the lower limbs often increases to a feeling of tension and occasional calf cramps, especially at night. Increased pain is also often observed. Sitting for long periods, such as in the cinema or while driving, causes an unpleasant feeling. Lifting and carrying heavy loads and standing for long periods of time is generally answered with heavy tired legs. Changes in the weather, such as fog and hairdryers, are becoming increasingly noticeable.
In contrast to this, at certain times after lying down and relaxing with raised legs, after walks or after swimming activities, one can observe a decrease in stress, even a relief. The attentive observation of the legs can also give indications of venous damage. For example, bluish or reddened discolorations can be found. Also the condition of the skin, whether shiny or dry, even thickened or inflammatory, possibly scaly areas indicate vein problems. The superficial changes of the skin vessels that can be observed, such as spider veins, i.e. the mostly bluish veins that emerge, and also swollen ankle or knee joint regions, testify to the existence of vein problems.
In addition to the anamnesis, the collection of the family and personal medical history, the examining physician will bring further clarity in the recognition of the venous disease through palpation and one of the many device-supported measuring methods.
Color Duplex Sonography
LRR photo-optical methods
You will find all further information on vein diseases in the LymphNetwork under the category/Menu Veins. You can have the text contents translated into your language, the translation can be found in the upper right corner of the LymphNetwork website.